James is a Tutor for the BA Security Studies programme at Leiden University’s Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA). He graduated from Leiden University with an MA in Middle Eastern Studies. His MA thesis explored the political construction of Kurdish national identities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq since the 1990-91 Gulf War. He previously obtained a BA in International Relations from Loughborough University (UK), where he also completed minor courses in Social Psychology and Mandarin Chinese. His primary research interests include national identity politics, international relations and “great power” involvement in the MENA region and its twenty-first century repercussions.