Constant Hijzen is assistant professor at Leiden University's Institute of Security and Global Affairs. He finished his PhD in 2016. The dissertation of Constant Hijzen is part of the VIDI-Project of Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf, entitled “Enemies of the state: the making of the national security state, 1945-2001”. In this project they investigate the construction of the national security state between 1945 and 2001 in the United States, the Netherlands, West-Germany and Italy, from both an international and a comparative perspective. The point of departure of this project is that in these postwar national security states, there were no ‘objective’ threats, but that these were representations of threats. The process of constructing these threats is the main focus of the research. Constant concentrated on the role of intelligence and security services in this process.